Your diet is a great place to start to reduce your TSH level but its not the only place you need to start adjusting in your life. TSH is your thyroid stimulating hormone and is produced by the pituitary gland. When your thyroid hormone gets to low and doesn’t response to your pituitary gland it begins to pumps out more TSH to try to fix this issue.
In most cases, hypothyroidism is caused by a beginning rooted immune system issue. According to Dr. Datis Kharrazian, 90% of people with hypothyroidism have Hashimoto’s, an autoimmune hypothyroid condition, whereby the immune system attacks thyroid tissue. Therefore, to cure thyroid disease, or any autoimmune condition, you have to get to the source of the imbalance; focusing on suppression of symptoms with medication alone is simply barking up the wrong tree.
Your body is an awesome design but there is a complex balance between everything. It’s like a domino. One thing in your body that is overworked can cause a major shift in how things operate. Sometimes we have to do a little pruning of the branches, in order for the tree to be healthy again. There is not one size fits all.
See when your thyroid isn’t working properly it can wreck havoc on your life. Your thyroid is responsible for so many things. it regulates your metabolism, makes energy, adjusts your mood, helps you sleep, even helps aid in good digestion but your see this is where you come into play. Like anything else in life you get back what you give.
Bottom line: You have to be in charge of your health.
Your underlying question needs to be: Why is my body out of balance and how can I help it regain its balance?
Of course your autoimmune disease didn’t happen overnight and yes you might have a genetic predisposition towards autoimmunity but science has proven that even if you have a preexisting genetic predisposition towards autoimmunity ( meaning it was passed down in your genes from your parents) Our genes are ever changing and are not static . Your genes are wonderful, busy little cells that can be both turned on and turned off by your environmental and lifestyle choices.
1. Fix your gut
Probiotics can help to begin repairing the lining in your gut. This also aids in helping to balance your hormones. if someone has leaky gut syndrome it allows undigested food particles to leak through your gut into your bloodstream and in return creates disease-causing inflammation that will have a impact on your body — especially your thyroid glands where they are very susceptible to inflammation. Did you know that your gut is the largest component of your immune system? It introduces friendly bacteria into your digestive system that helps to keep illness’s at bay and they are rich in live bacteria that help us absorb nutrients along with maintain proper microbiome gut balance. Research has proven that gut health could affect inflammation, allergies and autoimmune disorders in the body as a whole. Around 1,000 different species of bugs live in your gut. Your gut has been linked to contributing to weight loss and for overall improvement of numerous symptoms, including depression, anxiety, brain fog, skin problems, hormonal issues, immune weaknesses, digestive problems, and fatigue.
Gut-Healing Vegetable Broth
- 12 cups filtered water
- 1 tbsp coconut oil
- 1 red onion, peeled and cut in half
- 1 garlic bulb smashed
- 1 chilli pepper roughly chopped
- 1 thumb-sized piece of ginger roughly chopped
- 2 cups of watercress
- 3-4 cup mixed chopped vegetables and peelings I used carrot peelings, red cabbage, fresh mushrooms, leeks and celery
- 1/2 cup dried shiitake mushrooms
- 1/4 of a cup dried wakame seaweed
- 1 tbsp peppercorns
- 2 tbsp ground turmeric
- 1 tbsp organic apple cider vinegar
- A bunch of fresh parsley
Simply add everything to a large pot. Bring to a boil then simmer, with the lid on, for about an hour.
Once everything has been cooked down, strain the liquid into a large bowl.
There are different types of probiotics. Some are pills, powders, or capsules that contain billions of live bacteria and will help to replenish your microbiome. Fermented foods are more of a nature type of probiotic. They carry live bacteria plus many other crucial nutrients. Many cultures all around the world has its own recipes for fermented foods.
A lack of long term sleep can raise cortisol levels. You should aim for 7–8 hours of sleep every night.
3. Detox your lifestyle
We are creating a toxic shit storm within our very own bodies. I’m not speaking from a place of Prejudice or judgement because what you do with your life is entirely your call. The real reality is we are damaging our DNA and we are changing our genetic makeup for future generations. These chemicals in our food, beverages, vaccines and pharmaceuticals create a breeding ground for sickness. Have you heard of gene mutation? It’s when the cells are changed by chemicals they are either damaged, lost or copied. These processed foods that are full of man-made chemicals, fluoridated municipal tap water, genetically modified foods, Artificial sweeteners, Vaccines and the yearly flu shot – often contain mercury, aluminum, formaldehyde and MSG, Pharmaceutical medications and a lot of the Pharmaceutical medications are loaded with fluoride, OTC (over-the-counter) medications for colds, allergies, headaches and fever – often contain heavy metal toxins, artificial sweeteners and toxic industrial-based food dyes. All of this is what is keeping us sick and these corporations rich.
Did you know that most of these products we use every day contain toxic chemicals and has been linked to women’s health issues? They are hidden endocrine disruptors and are very tricky chemicals that play havoc on our bodies. “We are all routinely exposed to endocrine disruptors, and this has the potential to significantly harming our health.
4. Try Adaptogen Herbs
Adaptogen herbs are in a unique class of healing plants that promote hormone balance and help tp protect the body from a wide variety of diseases, including those caused by excess stress. They also boost your immune functions. Research shows that various adapotogens — such as ashwagandha, medicinal mushrooms, rhodiola and holy basil Studies show that holy basil can helps to regulate cortisol level, protect your organs and tissues against chemical stress from pollutants and heavy metals, which are other factors that can lead to hormone imbalance.— The unique healing herbs can—
- Improve thyroid function
- Lower cholesterol naturally
- Reduce anxiety and depression
- Reduce brain cell degeneration
- Stabilize blood sugar and insulin levels
- Support adrenal gland functions
** keep in mind that certain herbal supplements can affect thyroid function negatively, causing changes in your TSH, including guggul, tyrosine, kelp, bladderwrack supplements and products containing iodine, such as certain vitamins. So please beware and read labels.
5. Address Food sensitivities
If you allergic to certain foods it is will involve your the immune system. Your know that your immune system controls how your body defends itself. Your body see’s inflammatory foods as invaders and will kick in your autoimmunity responses. For example if you have a food allergy to cow’s milk, your immune system will see cow’s milk as an invader. In-return your immune system overreacts by producing antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE). These antibodies travel to cells that release chemicals, causing an allergic reaction to start fighting for your body. Being tested for food allergies seems to be easiest way to check to see if you have any food allergies so you can start avoiding these foods and help your immune system become strong again.
6. Change Your Diet
We are creating a perfect storm within our bodies. The less nutrients we consume, more toxins we add, create this world win of health issues. It’s sad that our western diet is made up of red meats, vegetable oils, white flour and sugar. Who would of thought that something so simple as eating has become so complicated. Food does matter. It talks to your DNA . Food can change your DNA!
The foods you eat have a major impact on autoimmune disease — It affects your gut health and along with increasing or decreasing the inflammation in your body. Unfortunately, our western world diet are full of foods that have a bad impact on both your gut and your inflammation. Start with eating whole foods that are anti-inflammatory. For instance, omega-3 wild fish, leafy greens and turmeric. If it was made in a lab , avoid it. Do a little research and you will find that our western diet that is made up of processed, fake foods, chemicals, sugar and corn oils are all highly flaming the fan of your inflammation. begin to start reading labels. You will soon discover that health foods such as low-fat and gluten-free packaged foods, which are often loaded with sugar, additives, and preservatives. Avoid Grains, dairy, legumes, eggs, corn, and soy which these foods are not the cornerstones to a healthy diet anymore they can contribute to a leaky gut and inflammation. Did you know that Gluten triggers the release of a chemical called zonulin, which tells the walls of your intestines to open up and by doing so this releases toxins into your bloodstream.
*Did you know that the over-consumption of soy products which contain high levels of isoflavones, can increase TSH ? Soy also can impede cell receptors and disrupt the feedback loop throughout your entire endocrine (hormonal) system.
*Gluten has a molecular composition of thyroid tissue. Those of us with Hashimoto’s, it’s simply a case of mistaken identity on our bodies. By eating gluten it increases the autoimmune attack on your thyroid.
*Eat cooked cruferious vegetables. Raw cruferious vegetables can enlarge the thyroid and reduce its responsiveness to TSH. Goitrogenic foods include turnips, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, radishes, cauliflower, rutabaga, cabbage and kale.
7.Reduce Your Toxic Burden
These are commonly found in items like antibacterial soap, deodorant, lotions, and makeup. These things are poisonous. Your skin is the largest organ in the body. Whatever you put on your skin goes into your body. I can’t preach this enough. If you can’t eat it, then don’t apply it to your skin. I understand this might not be 100% doable but every little bit helps your body. Everyday we are exposed to a huge number of chemical toxins without our own doing. It’s in our water, the pollution in our air, the insecticides and herbicides that are is sprayed on our food and the chemicals that are spray on our lawns.
Environmental chemicals and toxins, pesticides, BPA, thyroid endocrine disruptors, iodine imbalance, other medications, fluoride, overuse of soy products, cigarette smoking, and gluten intolerance. All of these play a very important role in your thyroid health. A nonprofit group called Beyond Pesticides warns that some 60 percent of pesticides used today have been shown to affect the thyroid gland’s production of T3 and T4 hormones. Commercially available insecticides and fungicides have also been involved. Even dental x-rays have been linked to an increased risk of thyroid disorders.
3 tbsp virgin coconut oil
2 tbsp shea butter
3 tbsp baking soda
2 tbsp cornstarch
5 drops essential oil of your choice
Mix baking soda and arrowroot together. Melt your coconut oil & shea butter in the microwave in a microwave-safe bowl. Mix all ingredients (the baking soda and arrowroot powder) with the oil. Pour into clean small mason jar. Add your essential oil to the mason jar; close with the lid. Give it a good shake to combine the essential oil with the other mixture. By doing it this way, you can still use that bowl to eat with. Once you mix that essential oil in the bowl, it can only be used for the purpose of making your deodorant. Everything you’ve used is edible except the essential oils. Let cool.
Natural Peppermint Toothpaste
1/2 cup coconut oil
3 Tablespoons of baking soda
15 drops of peppermint food grade essential oil
Melt to soften the coconut oil. Mix in other ingredients and stir well. Place your mixture into small glass jar. Allow it to cool completely. When ready to use just dip toothbrush in and scrape small amount onto bristles.
** Start making your own all natural Cleaning Supplies.
The mix here is important, and by purchasing my book A survivors cookbook guide to kicking hypothyroidism booty, I will show you exactly how and what you should be working each day into your diet so that you start healing your health. Break that cycle today, start eating to cater to your thyroid and replenish your life.
8. Relieve Your Stress
Many of us find ourselves in this cycle of so much responsibility that at times it seems impossible to manage. We are over worked and the chronic stress is breaking us down. Chronis stress keeps our cortisol levels elevated. If our cortisol levels are staying elevated, it begins to interfere with many other area’s of our body which are the immune system, digestion, sleep, and even the ability to produce other essential hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and YES you named it last but not least our THYROID which can cause an autoimmune reaction. Do you see the cycle?
We must try to begin to tackle our stress and start to manage it.
Stress not only effects your immune system but by revving up your immune system, it begins to produces a wave of inflammation.
Let’s face it your immune system needs a long vacation from all the stress you’ve put it through. Just enough for a fighting chance to get back on track.
Take a walk, read a book, take a relaxing Epsom salt bath, start a yoga class, meditate, walk your dog. The key is to figure out what works for you and relaxes you.
9. Address Chronic Candida
Hypothyroidism causes low body temps which allows fungal overgrowth. Get the temps up and the fungal/yeast will have nowhere to live.”
Our lives already seem to be on hold from our hypothyroidism. Did you know that an overload of Candida was picked up at birth or shortly thereafter? We were supposed to be getting good friendly bacteria from our mother’s at birth, but “our” mother’s had Candida overgrowth and unknowing passed it on to us. And over the years, our bodies has become more and more compromised. Your gut microbes could be dramatically affecting your thyroid health. There is a lot of misinformation and misunderstanding about Candida. Both from the medical profession and on the internet. It is easy to get fooled into thinking, as many sites will try to convince you, that all anyone needs to do is to take their product or buy their e-book. Of course, they will all have testimonies. What they don’t tell you in those testimonies is how the Candida came back — in a month or two or in six months. However long it took for the Candida to overgrow enough to start causing symptoms again. It is important to know that dealing with Candida is not an easy fix.
If you think you have chronic candida read this blog Chronic Candida Attacking Your Thyroid?
Start your day our with meditation and a grateful heart. There are many people who weren’t able to wake up and live another day. I can’t even begin to express the importance of the power of meditation has over the body. It’s been proven to lower your levels of cortisol which is also known as the stress hormone. I like to start my day off listening to mediation music to clear my head while I have my legs up against the wall using this yoga pose.
Legs up the wall pose will not only help with your thyroid functions but it also relieves back pain, helps with insomnia, improves posture, helps with anxiety, naturally adjusts your spine, improves your digestion and it starts a lymphatic circulation. Your lymphatic system doesn’t have a pump and relies on our movements and gravity to circulate lymph fluid where the toxins in this fluid can be eliminated from your body. If we sit all day the lymph fluid becomes stagnant and start to collect toxins. By simply reversing the flow of gravity in your legs, you begin to circulate the lymphatic fluid and encourage the body to start the elimination of toxins. Dry brushing also will simulate the lymphatic system and improve skin tone.
11. Always take your thyroid medications alone and wait 4 hours before taking any iron tablets, vitamins with iron and calcium supplements. never take it at the same time as you take your thyroid medication. Calcium and iron can disrupt the absorption of thyroid replacement. Allow two to four hours between the time you take your thyroid medication and your iron and calcium supplements.
12. Address nutritional deficiencies
Having nutritional deficiencies isnt the cause of hypothyridism but it certainly adds gas to the fire. When you are deficient it can aggravate the symptoms: vitamin D, iron, omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, zinc, copper, vitamin A, the B vitamins, and iodine.
13. Rule out other causes of your symptoms
- Iron imbalance
- Blood sugar imbalances
- Nutrient deficiencies
- Selenium deficiency
- Vitamin D deficiency
The most important thyroid nutrients and their doses (for adults) are zinc (30 mg/day), selenium (200 mcg/day), iodine (150 mcg), and iron (18 mg). The uber-cool thyroid pharmacist Izabella Wentz also suggests that low thiamine (vitamin B1) may be an issue for Hashimoto’s sufferers, and that supplementing this nutrient may be helpful and a th B-complex.
14. Start Supporting my Adrenal Glands
Your adrenals produce over 50 hormones that tell almost every bodily function what they need to be doing. These hormones affect every function, organ and tissue in the body. Eating refined foods and sugars will cause a spike in your blood sugar levels, which in return cause the body to release insulin and as a result the adrenal glands will release more cortisol. When your adrenal glands are compromised this puts your body in a catabolic state. Which means your body is breaking down. Since your thyroid glands controls the metabolic activity of the body, it will attempt to slow down the catabolic state by slowing down your metabolism. Many of the foods that I had been eating blocked nutrients from being absorbed such as whole grain bread, beans and tofu/soy products. These foods also created inflammation in my digestive tract. When there is inflammation in the digestive system undigested proteins leak into the blood stream creating a heightened immune reaction that often exacerbates thyroid issues. I had to focus more on eating the most nutrient dense foods possible and find my trigger food sensitivities. lastly, eliminate all processed food, high carbohydrates, gluten, corn, soy and sugar, plan meals around protein and healthy fats then load up my plate with vegetables.
I had to start eating nutrient-dense foods that were easy to digest and have healing qualities such as
- homemade bone broth
- grass fed meats
- pastured meats
- wild game
- pastured organ meats
- natural fats such as coconut oil
- grass fed butter/ghee
- full fat grass fed dairy
- mineral rich Himalayan sea salt
- wild fish
- Cruciferous vegetables (cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, etc.) Cooked…. (Limit 2x week)
- Fatty fish (e.g., wild-caught salmon)
- Organic hormone free Chicken and turkey
- Seeds, such as raw pumpkin, chia seeds and flax seeds
- Kelp and seaweed
- Celtic or Himalayan sea salt
- fermented foods
- leafy greens
- Nitrate free bacon
- Nuts, such as walnuts and almonds
- Coconut Flour, Almond Flour , hemp seeds and Chia seeds
- bone broth
15. Add Sea Weed
Naturally rich in iodine as well as trace minerals, sea weed has long been considered a food that supports thyroid function. Iodine is critical to thyroid health and function. Without adequate dietary iodine, your body is unable to manufacture the thyroid hormones. Of course, excess intake of iodine-rich foods is also implicated in thyroid disease. Remember: moderation is the key, not excess.
16. Add Coconut Oil
Coconut oil also supports proper thyroid function as it slightly stimulates thyroid hormone production and the metabolism. Coconut oil may also help to reduce cholesterol in hypothyroid patients as thyroid suppression in and of itself raises blood cholesterol levels.
17. Add Shellfish
Shellfish, like sea vegetables, are naturally rich in iodine – the nutrient that is critically important to thyroid function as iodine molecules are used inthe production of thyroid hormones.
Try avoid Gluten-containing Grains, Unfermented Soy, Coffee, Raw Cruciferous Vegetables, millet, Soy and fermented soy products.
Audrey Childers is a published author, blogger, freelance journalist and an entrepreneur with over a decade of experience in research and editorial writing. She is also the creator and founder of the website the hypothyroidismchick.com. Where you can find great tips on everyday living with hypothyroidism. She enjoys raising her children and being a voice for optimal human health and wellness.
I want to thank you for reading my latest blog. Please let me know if you need any support with it.
Otherwise, are we friends on Facebook yet? If not let’s do that now, healing Hypothyroidism. I like to connect on a more personal level there and often; offer social media only products that can only be accessed on my page and share daily updates along with recipes. Remember sharing is caring. Please share and post a comment to this blog! I would love to hear from you. Sign up for my blogs @ thehypothyroidismchick.com . You can also Follow me on instagram @ Thyroidismchick or Follow me on twitter @Thyroidismchick.
Health and Happiness,
In many of my books, you will find everything you need to know about healing your hypothyroidism. The guess work has been taken out. I can assure you that even in the toughest cases, you can heal your thyroid.
Dieting for Your Thyroid
When it comes down to it, the proper diet for our thyroid is one that has balance. We need to constantly be incorporating a healthy amount of the three major sources of macronutrients:
- Healthy Carbohydrates
The mix here is important, and by purchasing my book A survivors cookbook guide to kicking hypothyroidism booty, I will show you exactly how and what you should be working each day into your diet so that you start healing your health. Break that cycle today, start eating to cater to your thyroid and replenish your life.
Pick up my latest book! order Yours today!
We need to be kind to ourselves. Give our bodies a fighting chance. If you constantly feed your body crap then you are making it susceptible to inflammation, virus’s and disease. I want to help you become successful in your healthy journey by applying the empowering techniques many of my blogs have to offer. This article has been written by a person who has had real struggles with a hypothyroidism but has worked through them. I am going to “keep it real” with you.
Click on the link and orders yours today!
The information and recipes contained in blog is based upon the research and the personal experiences of the author. It’s for entertainment purposes only. Every attempt has been made to provide accurate, up to date and reliable information. No warranties of any kind are expressed or implied. Readers acknowledge that the author is not engaging in the rendering of legal, financial, medical or professional advice. By reading this blog, the reader agrees that under no circumstance the author is not responsible for any loss, direct or indirect, which are incurred by using this information contained within this blog. Including but not limited to errors, omissions or inaccuracies. This blog is not intended as replacements from what your health care provider has suggested. The author is not responsible for any adverse effects or consequences resulting from the use of any of the suggestions, preparations or procedures discussed in this blog. All matters pertaining to your health should be supervised by a health care professional. I am not a doctor, or a medical professional. This blog is designed for as an educational and entertainment tool only. Please always check with your health practitioner before taking any vitamins, supplements, or herbs, as they may have side-effects, especially when combined with medications, alcohol, or other vitamins or supplements. Knowledge is power, educate yourself and find the answer to your health care needs. Wisdom is a wonderful thing to seek. I hope this blog will teach and encourage you to take leaps in your life to educate yourself for a happier & healthier life. You have to take ownership of your health.
- J. Karovičová, Milan Drdák, Gabriel Greif, & Hybenová E (1999). The choice of strains of Lactobacillus species for the lactic acid fermentation of vegetable juices. European Food Research and Technology 210(1):53-56. DOI: 10.1007/s002170050532
- Quigley L, et al. (2011). Molecular approaches to analysing the microbial composition of raw milk and raw milk cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology 150(2-3):81-94. PMID 21868118
- Donovan SM & Shamir R (2014). Introduction to the yogurt in nutrition initiative and the First Global Summit on the health effects of yogurt. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 99(5 Suppl):1209S-1211S. PMID 24646825
- Beermann C & Hartung J (2013). Physiological properties of milk ingredients released by fermentation. Food & Function 4(2):185-199. PMID 23111492
- Hennessy AA, et al. (2012). The production of conjugated alpha-linolenic, gamma-linolenic and stearidonic acids by strains of bifidobacteria and propionibacteria. Lipids 47(3):313-327. PMID 22160449
- Parvez S, Malik KA, Ah Kang S, & Kim HY (2006). Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health. Journal of Applied Microbiology 100(6):1171-1185. PMID 16696665
- Padilla B, et al. (2012). Evaluation of oligosaccharide synthesis from lactose and lactulose using beta-galactosidases from Kluyveromyces isolated from artisanal cheeses. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 60(20):5134-5141. PMID 22559148
- USDA ARS (2013). USDA national nutrient database for standard reference, release 26. Nutrient Data Laboratory homepage.
- Wang H, Livingston KA, Fox CS, Meigs JB, & Jacques PF (2013). Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women. Nutrition Research 33(1):18-26. PMID 23351406
- Adolfsson O, Meydani SN, & Russel RM (2004). Yogurt and gut function. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 80:245-256. PMID 15277142
- Keszei AP, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, & van den Brandt PA (2010). Dairy intake and the risk of bladder cancer in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 171(4):436-446. PMID 20042437
- Sonestedt E, et al. (2011). Dairy products and its association with incidence of cardiovascular disease: the Malmo diet and cancer cohort. European journal of epidemiology 26(8):609-618. PMID 21660519
- Adegboye AR, et al. (2012). Intake of dairy products in relation to periodontitis in older Danish adults. Nutrients 4(9):1219-1229. PMID 23112910
- Siddappa V, Nanjegowda DK, & Viswanath P (2012). Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50(11):4158-4162. PMID 22939935
- Prandini A, et al. (2009). On the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk and dairy products. Food and Chemical Toxicology 47(5):984-991. PMID 18037552
- Linares DM, Martin MC, Ladero V, Alvarez MA, & Fernandez M (2011). Biogenic amines in dairy products. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 51(7):691-703. PMID 21793728
- Redruello B, et al. (2013). A fast, reliable, ultra high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of amino acids, biogenic amines and ammonium ions in cheese, using diethyl ethoxymethylenemalonate as a derivatising agent. Food Chemistry 139(1-4):1029-1035. PMID 23561206
- Buckenhuskes HJ (1997). Fermented vegetables. Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, eds Doyle PD, Beuchat LR, & Montville TJ (ASM Press, Washington, DC), 2nd Ed, pp 595-609. ISBN 9781555811174
- Bering S, et al. (2006). A lactic acid-fermented oat gruel increases non-haem iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in healthy women of childbearing age. The British Journal of Nutrition 96(1):80-85. PMID 16869994
- Proulx AK & Reddy MB (2007). Fermentation and lactic acid addition enhance iron bioavailability of maize. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(7):2749-2754. PMID 17355139
- Scheers N, Rossander-Hulthen L, Torsdottir I, & Sandberg AS (2015). Increased iron bioavailability from lactic-fermented vegetables is likely an effect of promoting the formation of ferric iron (Fe). European Journal of Nutrition. PMID 25672527
- Flint HJ (2012). The impact of nutrition on the human microbiome. Nutrition Reviews 70 Suppl 1:S10-13. PMID 22861801
- Scott KP, Gratz SW, Sheridan PO, Flint HJ, & Duncan SH (2013). The influence of diet on the gut microbiota. Pharmacological Research: The Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society 69(1):52-60. PMID 23147033
- FAO/WHO (2001). Report on Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Properties of Probiotics in Food Including Powder Milk with Live Lactic Acid Bacteria.
- Jalanka-Tuovinen J, et al. (2011). Intestinal microbiota in healthy adults: temporal analysis reveals individual and common core and relation to intestinal symptoms. PloS One 6(7):e23035. PMID 21829582
- Reuter G (2001). The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium microflora of the human intestine: composition and succession. Current Issues in Intestinal Microbiology 2(2):43-53. PMID 11721280
- Turroni F, et al. (2014). Molecular dialogue between the human gut microbiota and the host: a Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium perspective. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS 71(2):183-203. PMID 23516017
- Veiga P, et al. (2014). Changes of the human gut microbiome induced by a fermented milk product. Scientific Reports 4:6328. PMID 25209713
- Round JL & Mazmanian SK (2009). The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease. Nature Reviews. Immunology 9(5):313-323. PMID 19343057
- Champagne CP, Ross RP, Saarela M, Hansen KF, & Charalampopoulos D (2011). Recommendations for the viability assessment of probiotics as concentrated cultures and in food matrices. International Journal of Food Microbiology 149(3):185-193. PMID 21803436
- Derrien M & van Hylckama Vlieg JE (2015). Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota. Trends in Microbiology 23(6):354-366. PMID 25840765
- Lee YK, et al. (2000). Quantitative approach in the study of adhesion of lactic acid bacteria to intestinal cells and their competition with enterobacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 66(9):3692-3697. PMID 10966378
- Ouwehand AC, Tuomola EM, Lee YK, & Salminen S (2001). Microbial interactions to intestinal mucosal models. Methods in Enzymology 337:200-212. PMID 11398429
- van Bokhorst-van de Veen H, et al. (2012). Modulation of Lactobacillus plantarum gastrointestinal robustness by fermentation conditions enables identification of bacterial robustness markers. PloS One 7(7):e39053. PMID 22802934
- Marteau P, Minekus M, Havenaar R, & Huis in’t Veld JH (1997). Survival of lactic acid bacteria in a dynamic model of the stomach and small intestine: validation and the effects of bile. Journal of Dairy Science 80(6):1031-1037. PMID 9201571
- van Bokhorst-van de Veen H, van Swam I, Wels M, Bron PA, & Kleerebezem M (2012). Congruent strain specific intestinal persistence of Lactobacillus plantarum in an intestine-mimicking in vitro system and in human volunteers. PloS One 7(9):e44588. PMID 22970257
- Uyeno Y, Sekiguchi Y, & Kamagata Y (2008). Impact of consumption of probiotic lactobacilli-containing yogurt on microbial composition in human feces. International Journal of Food Microbiology 122(1-2):16-22. PMID 18077045
- Saxelin M, et al. (2010). Persistence of probiotic strains in the gastrointestinal tract when administered as capsules, yoghurt, or cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology 144(2):293-300. PMID 21074284
- Lim SM & Im DS (2009). Screening and characterization of probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolated from Korean fermented foods. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19(2):178-186. PMID 19307768
- Lee KE, Choi UH, & Ji GE (1996). Effect of kimchi in intake on the composition of human large intestinal bacteria. Korean J Food Sci Technol 28:981-986. Abstract
- Vitetta L, Briskey D, Alford H, Hall S, & Coulson S (2014). Probiotics, prebiotics and the gastrointestinal tract in health and disease. Inflammopharmacology 22(3):135-154. PMID 24633989
- Kirjavainen PV, Arvola T, Salminen SJ, & Isolauri E (2002). Aberrant composition of gut microbiota of allergic infants: a target of bifidobacterial therapy at weaning? Gut 51(1):51-55. PMID 12077091
- Hattori K, et al. (2003). [Effects of administration of bifidobacteria on fecal microflora and clinical symptoms in infants with atopic dermatitis]. Arerugi = [Allergy] 52(1):20-30. PMID 12598719
- Isolauri E, Arvola T, Sutas Y, Moilanen E, & Salminen S (2000). Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology 30(11):1604-1610. PMID 11069570
- Neish AS, et al. (2000). Prokaryotic regulation of epithelial responses by inhibition of IkappaB-alpha ubiquitination. Science 289(5484):1560-1563. PMID 10968793
- Schiffrin EJ, Brassart D, Servin AL, Rochat F, & Donnet-Hughes A (1997). Immune modulation of blood leukocytes in humans by lactic acid bacteria: criteria for strain selection. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 66(2):515S-520S. PMID 9250141
- Lee YK & Puong KY (2002). Competition for adhesion between probiotics and human gastrointestinal pathogens in the presence of carbohydrate. The British Journal of Nutrition 88 Suppl 1:S101-108. PMID 12215184
- Creagh EM & O’Neill LA (2006). TLRs, NLRs and RLRs: a trinity of pathogen sensors that co-operate in innate immunity. Trends in Immunology 27(8):352-357. PMID 16807108
- Hughes DT & Sperandio V (2008). Inter-kingdom signalling: communication between bacteria and their hosts. Nature Reviews. Microbiology 6(2):111-120. PMID 18197168
- Botic T, Klingberg TD, Weingartl H, & Cencic A (2007). A novel eukaryotic cell culture model to study antiviral activity of potential probiotic bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology 115(2):227-234. PMID 17261339
- Juntunen M, Kirjavainen PV, Ouwehand AC, Salminen SJ, & Isolauri E (2001). Adherence of probiotic bacteria to human intestinal mucus in healthy infants and during rotavirus infection. Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 8(2):293-296. PMID 11238211
- Resta-Lenert S & Barrett KE (2003). Live probiotics protect intestinal epithelial cells from the effects of infection with enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC). Gut 52(7):988-997. PMID 12801956
- Banasaz M, Norin E, Holma R, & Midtvedt T (2002). Increased enterocyte production in gnotobiotic rats mono-associated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68(6):3031-3034. PMID 12039764
- Deplancke B & Gaskins HR (2001). Microbial modulation of innate defense: goblet cells and the intestinal mucus layer. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73(6):1131S-1141S. PMID 11393191
- Otte JM & Podolsky DK (2004). Functional modulation of enterocytes by gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 286(4):G613-626. PMID 15010363
- O’Shea EF, et al. (2009). Characterization of enterocin- and salivaricin-producing lactic acid bacteria from the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. FEMS Microbiology Letters 291(1):24-34. PMID 19076236
- Pridmore RD, Pittet AC, Praplan F, & Cavadini C (2008). Hydrogen peroxide production by Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 and its role in anti-Salmonella activity. FEMS Microbiology Letters 283(2):210-215. PMID 18435747
- Heller L (2009). Danisco breaks down probiotics market. (Nutra Ingredients, USA).
- Cook MT, Tzortzis G, Charalampopoulos D, & Khutoryanskiy VV (2012). Microencapsulation of probiotics for gastrointestinal delivery. Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society 162(1):56-67. PMID 22698940
- Starling S (2009). Probiotics must meet Europe’s new health claim laws head on.
- Oliveira RP, et al. (2009). Effect of different prebiotics on the fermentation kinetics, probiotic survival and fatty acids profiles in nonfat symbiotic fermented milk. International Journal of Food Microbiology 128(3):467-472. PMID 19000641
- Reid G (2008). How science will help shape future clinical applications of probiotics. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 46 Suppl 2:S62-66; discussion S144-151. PMID 18181725
- Govender M, et al. (2014). A review of the advancements in probiotic delivery: Conventional vs. non-conventional formulations for intestinal flora supplementation. AAPS PharmSciTech 15(1):29-43. PMID 24222267
- Herbel SR, et al. (2013). Species-specific quantification of probiotic lactobacilli in yoghurt by quantitative real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology 115(6):1402-1410. PMID 24024971
- Dunlap BS, Yu H, & Elitsur Y (2009). The probiotic content of commercial yogurts in West Virginia. Clinical Pediatrics 48(5):522-527. PMID 19246412
- Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE, & Daily JW, 3rd (2014). Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. Journal of Medicinal Food 17(1):6-20. PMID 24456350
- Lee D, Kim S, Cho J, & Kim J (2008). Microbial population dynamics and temperature changes during fermentation of kimjang kimchi. Journal of Microbiology 46(5):590-593. PMID 18974963
- Lee JS, et al. (2005). Analysis of kimchi microflora using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. International Journal of Food Microbiology 102(2):143-150. PMID 15992614
- Kim M & Chun J (2005). Bacterial community structure in kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable food, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology 103(1):91-96. PMID 16084269
- Lee J, Hwang KT, Heo MS, Lee JH, & Park KY (2005). Resistance of Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC 3099 from Kimchi to oxidative stress. Journal of Medicinal Food 8(3):299-304. PMID 16176138
- Lee JH, Kweon DH, & Lee SC (2006). Isolation and characterization of an immunopotentiating factor from Lactobacillus plantarum in kimchi: assessment of immunostimulatory activities. . Food Sci Biotechnol 15:877-883. Abstract
- Hur HJ, Lee KW, & Lee HJ (2004). Production of nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 by RAW264.7 macrophage cells treated with lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. BioFactors 21(1-4):123-125. PMID 15630182
- Jang SE, et al. (2013). Lactobacillus plantarum HY7712 ameliorates cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression in mice. Journal of microbiology and biotechnology 23(3):414-421. PMID 23462016
- Chae OW, Shin KS, Chung H, & Choe TB (1998). Immunostimulation effects of mice fed with cell lysate of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kimchi. Korean J Biotech Bioeng 13:424-430. Article
- Kim NH, et al. (2008). Lipid profile lowering effect of Soypro fermented with lactic acid bacteria isolated from Kimchi in high-fat diet-induced obese rats. BioFactors 33(1):49-60. PMID 19276536
- Kwon JY, Cheigh HS, & Song YO (2004). Weight reduction and lipid lowering effects of kimchi lactic acid powder in rats fed high fat diets. Korean J Food Sci Technol 36:1014-1019. Article
- Ahn DK, Han TW, Shin HY, Jin IN, & Ghim SY (2003). Diversity and antibacterial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi. Korean J Microbiol Biotechnol 31:191-196. Abstract
- Tang, M., Ponsonby, A-L., Orsini, F., Tey, D., Robinson, M., Su, E. L., Licciardi, P., Burks, W., and Donath, S., (2015). Administration of a probiotic with peanut oral immunotherapy: A randomized trial. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 135 (3): 737-44.PMID 25592987
- Battcock, M & Azam-Ali, S 1998, ‘Fermented fruits and vegetables: A global perspective’, FAO Agricultural Services Bulletin, no. 134, viewed 18 July 2016, <http://www.fao.org/docrep/x0560e/x0560e00.htm#con>
- Kechagia, M Basoulis, D SKonstantopoulou, S Dimitriadi, D Gyftopoulou, K Skarmoutsou, K and Fakiri, EM 2013, Health Benefits of Probiotics: A Review, ISRN Nutrition, vol. 2013, Article ID 481651
- Tillisch K, Labus J, Kilpatrick L, Jiang Z, Stains J, Ebrat B, Guyonnet D, Legrain-Raspaud S, Trotin B, Naliboff B, & Mayer EA 2013, Consumption of fermented milk product with probiotic modulates brain activity, Gastroenterology, no. 144, no. 7, pp. 1394-1401
- Selhub, EM, Logan, AC, & Bested, AC 2014, ‘Fermented foods, microbiota, and mental health: ancient practice meets nutritional psychiatry’, Journal of Physiological Anthropology.
- Derrien M & van Hylckama Vlieg JE 2015, ‘Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut microbiota’, Trends in Microbiology,23, no. 6, pp354-366.
- den Besten, G, van Eunen, K, Groen, AK, Venema, K, Reijngoud, D, & Bakker, BM 2013, ‘The role of short-chain fatty acids in the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and host energy metabolism’, Journal Of Lipid Research, vol. 54, no. 9, pp. 2325-2340.Farnworth ER (2008). Handbook of Fermented Functional Foods (CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA). ISBN 9781420053265
- Rolle R & Satin M (2002). Basic requirements for the transfer of fermentation technologies to developing countries. International Journal of Food Microbiology 75(3):181-187. PMID